Impact of For-Profit and Non-Profit Management on Student Achievement: The Philadelphia Intervention, 2002-2008

Matthew M. Chingos and Paul E. Peterson
Year of publication: 
PEPG 09-02

The School District of Philadelphia, in the summer of 2002, at the request of the State of Pennsylvania, asked for-profit and non-profit managers to participate in a substantial restructuring of its lowest-performing schools under the overall direction of the Philadelphia School Reform Commission (SRC). Thirty elementary and middle schools were contracted out to for-profit management organizations; 16 schools were contracted out to non-profit organizations. Another 21 schools were assigned to be restructured by a newly created Office of Restructured Schools (ORS), a special office within the school district itself. Sixteen schools (commonly called the “sweet sixteen”) were simply given additional fiscal resources.